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obstinate, compliant, amenable, cooperative


Personality and Character Traits, Control and Discipline, Adversity and Obstacle, Recklessness and Indulgence



How to pronounce refractory (audio)


Dictionary definition of refractory

Resistant to control, treatment, or modification, often due to its stubborn or unyielding nature.
"The refractory employee consistently ignored company policies."

Detailed meaning of refractory

It implies a degree of defiance or unwillingness to conform to expectations or external influences. This term can apply to various contexts, from materials that resist high temperatures or chemical changes to individuals who display a persistent resistance to authority, guidance, or change. In medicine, "refractory" is often used to describe conditions or diseases that do not respond to standard treatments, suggesting a need for alternative approaches or therapies. In essence, "refractory" conveys a sense of resistance and difficulty in achieving the desired outcome or effect.

Example sentences containing refractory

1. The refractory material could withstand extremely high temperatures.
2. His refractory behavior in the classroom disrupted the entire lesson.
3. The refractory nature of the disease made it difficult to treat.
4. The refractory period of the neuron is crucial for its proper functioning.
5. The patient's refractory symptoms required a different approach to treatment.
6. The refractory clay was perfect for shaping and molding pottery.

History and etymology of refractory

The adjective 'refractory' has its origins in Latin and can be traced back to the word 'refractarius,' which means 'stubborn' or 'resistant.' This Latin term is derived from 'refractare,' meaning 'to resist' or 'to oppose.' In essence, 'refractory' originally described something or someone that actively resisted control or modification. Over time, as the word found its way into English, it came to signify individuals or situations that are resistant to control, treatment, or modification, often due to their stubborn or unyielding nature. The etymology of 'refractory' underscores the idea of active resistance and opposition, emphasizing the challenge of dealing with things or people that steadfastly refuse to conform or yield to authority or influence.

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Further usage examples of refractory

1. Despite numerous attempts, the machine remained refractory to repair.
2. The refractory student needed extra attention to catch up with the class.
3. The refractory metal alloy was used in aerospace applications.
4. Her refractory attitude towards change hindered the team's progress.
5. The refractory coating protected the surface from corrosion.
6. The refractory period between contractions allowed the heart muscle to relax.
7. His refractory response to criticism made it challenging to work with him.
8. The refractory concrete was used to line the furnace walls.
9. The refractory symptoms of the illness required a specialist's care.
10. The refractory child finally calmed down after a long discussion.
11. The refractory coating on the spacecraft protected it during re-entry.
12. Despite his refractory demeanor, he was actually quite caring.
13. The refractory ceramic tiles were resistant to extreme heat.
14. The refractory phase of the disease could be the most challenging for patients.
15. Her refractory behavior was a cry for attention and understanding.
16. The refractory patient showed signs of improvement after the new treatment.
17. The refractory employee was let go after multiple warnings.
18. The refractory characteristics of the material made it ideal for use in furnaces.

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